First Congregational Church, Columbus, OH
A beautiful city and
the Capital of Norfolk. The site of the city so important as it developed
within a large double bend in the River Wensum. After the Norman conquest
both the castle and the cathedral were built, two focal points that remain until
this day. The great stone keep of the castle dates back to 1160 and except
for the Tower of London must rate as one of the best surviving examples of
Norman military architecture in the country. 90 feet square and over 70
feet in height. The city centre is dotted with important historic
buildings, the Guildhall built between 1407-1413, the Assembly House in Theatre
Street 1754, Bridewell Museum 1370, Strangers Hall is Mid 15th Century, plus
approximately 30 surviving churches all Medieval and many of exceptional
interest. In Medieval times Norwich also had one of the largest Jewish
communities in England. Wealthy merchants and money lenders living in the
city built superb houses some of which exist to this day, one example being the
old music house in King Street which is 12th Century.
place name means Northern specialised place with the Olde English wic
meaning town or port. the town was recorded as Northwic during the early part of
the 10th Century. In the Doomsday book it is recorded as Noruic.
A fine Norman Cathedral
built under the direction of Bishop De Josinga in 1096. When he died in
1119 he was buried in the chancel and the work continued until the finished
building was consecrated in 1278. The Norman plan, which incidentally is
the only one to survive in this country, featured a Bishops Throne at the East
end, in an apse behind the altar. It is suggested the throne is approx
1000 years old which if confirmed would make it the oldest Bishops Throne in any
English Cathedral. The nave has a superb roof with close on 800 roof
bosses. Outside the building there are an array of Norman flying
buttresses which were needed to support this huge burden. The spire is the
second highest in England at 315 feet (Salisbury is the highest) was added in
the late 15th Century by Goldwell.
A prosperous city and
an important market town. In its centre is the market place where the
Guildhall, built in 1671, dominates. Nearby is St John the Baptist’s
Church built in 1402. The best Georgian houses are in Priestgate on the
corner of which is the three storied Angel Hotel. The Town Hall in Bridge
Street was built in the 1930s in a mock Georgian style.
Founded as a monastery
by King Peada of Mercia in 655. Destroyed by the Danes in 870 and
re-founded by King Edgar over 100 years later. Hereward the Wake attacked
and plundered it about 1070 and approx 40 years later it was completely
destroyed by fire. The present church was begun in 1118 and the church was
dedicated in 1238. The building is of Barnack stone, 481 feet long by 206
feet wide and approx 81 feet high with the tower reaching 143 feet into the
heavens. The nave is a superb example of Norman architecture dating from
the second half of the 12th Century. The painted wooden ceiling is unique
in all England and dates back to 1220. In the retrochoir the ceiling has
magnificent fan vaulting and the “hedda stone” an important piece of Anglo-Saxon
sculpture dating from about 800. In front of the retrochoir are two burial
places one the tomb of Catherine of Aragon first Queen of Henry VIII who was
buried here in 1536. The second tomb was that of Mary Queen of Scots
buried here in 1587. However her son James I had her body removed and reburied
in Westminster Abbey in 1612. Henry VIII founded and endowed the Kings
school where the future choristers were to be educated.
The most ancient part of
this historic city occupies a rugged hill top rising over 200 feet above the
river Witham. Evidence has been found of occupation by Celtic people who
called the settlement Lindon. On the arrival of the Roman IXth legion in
A.D.47 the name was Latinised to Lindum Colonia. Geographical position,
elevation and the river all helped to make Lincoln an important centre even from
those pre Roman days. Roman Lincoln had fine colannaded streets and
elaborate public baths, also drinking water supplied in earthenware pipes under
pressure from over one and a half miles away. When the Romans departed
they left behind a road and canal system, sewers, working farms and a wealth of
tiles and stone. During the Anglo-Saxon times, Lincoln was a part of the
kingdom of Mercia. With the arrival of the Danes Lincoln became a part of
the Danelaw where streets like Saltergate, Danesgate & Hungate bear witness
(similar to York) The Normans made Lincoln one of the most important
cities in the kingdom. The castle was built in 1068 just 2 years after the
Battle of Hastings. The city is full of wonderful buildings, cobb hall
14th Century, a fine Norman house at 15 The Stait. The castle square some
lovely 16th Century buildings, Greyfriars a 13th Century building originally
designed as a Church (now the museum) the list is endless. The city is now
a busy place providing employment to many thousands in the engineering industry.
The third largest in
England occupying approx 57,000 sq ft. the original building was started in 1072
and fully built by 1092 but after a great fire and of all things an earthquake a
new Cathedral was started in 1192 built in the English style and today we see it
as the triple towered cathedral church of St Mary. An important feature of
the Cathedral is the arcade designed by Sir Christopher Wren in 1674 which was
the year he started the rebuilding of St Pauls.
by William the Conqueror in 1068, built to be a invulnerable stronghold.
The battlemented castle is most impressive. The enclosed area encompasses
approx 6 acres with lawns and trees. The walls are 8 to 10ft thick and double
that amount in height. Two great detached mounds on the South side are the
observatory tower, with great views of Lincoln and the uprights of the Norman
keep. Cobb Hall was added in the 14th Century to be used as a
place of punishment. One can still see the iron rings to which prisoners
where fastened to. The roof of the tower was a place of public execution
till 1868. One of the original copies of Magna Carta is still kept here.
One other interesting feature to look out for within the passage of the castle
gateway is all that is left of the Eleanor Cross. This was positioned
close the priory where the body of Eleanor of Castile, the wife of Edward the
1st was embalmed before starting on its famous journey South to Westminster
Abbey. This, the first of the crosses erected at each resting place of her body
on its funeral procession from Nottinghamshire to the Capital. The last
one at Charing Cross in London where the body lay on the final night before
burial at the Abbey.
The largest & grandest
house of the first Elizabethan age. built between 1565 & 1587 by William Cecil.
The house is still a family home yet full of superb paintings and antiques, a
treasure to feast upon. The art collection is one of the most impressive
17th Century Italian painting collections in the world, with over 300 great
works on display in the state rooms, which also includes work by Gainsborough,
Kneller and Lawrence. The tour will allow access to over 18 state rooms
filled with superb porcelain from all over Europe and a collection of early
Japanese ceramics, together with furniture of the highest quality including a
bed once used by Queen Victoria. Try and find time to wander in the
grounds, acres of park land, originally landscaped by Capability Brown.
Mature trees and plenty of space for the youngsters to let off some steam.
townscape of this walled city illustrates much of its nearly 2,000 years
history. York possesses in its Minster the largest medieval church in
Northern Europe, the general scale of its building is small and human.
Even today York seems more medieval than almost any other English town.
The compact core is a treasure house for anyone interested in history,
architecture or ancient crafts, and is best seen on foot. The Romans
called the place Eboracum, and built a fort in AD.71. Under the Angles,
York was capital of their Kingdom of Deira. King Edwin was baptised here
by Paulinus, who became the first Archbishop of York in 634. The Danes
captured and burnt York in 867 and it was their capital in England for nearly
100 years, they called it Jorvik and it is from this that the present name
derives. There is nothing left to see of Anglo Saxon and Danish York, but
the use of the word gate for street is a reminder that the Danes did settle
here. The Norman's found a thriving little trading centre and burnt it in
1069 during their frightful ravaging of the North, and then rebuilt the walls,
expanding them to take the present 263 acres. Medieval York is everywhere,
not least in the web of narrow streets. The Shambles and Stonegate are two
of the best preserved examples. Too the East of the Minster is the half
timbered St William's College. Three of the nine Guildhalls still survive.
All the city walls are medieval rebuilt on the Roman and Norman foundations in
the 13th Century. A 2.5 mile footpath on the walls gives a circular tour
of the city. In the middle ages, York was England's second city a great
religious and commercial centre. A lovely city with much to see and enjoy.
York Castle (Cliffords tower) In 1068 William
the Conquer built 2 Motte & Bailey castles in York. Both where later destroyed
by a Danish fleet helped by the people of York. Eventually William rebuilt the
two castles and the mound on which now stands Cliffords Tower became a part of
the main fortress. However except for the tower very little of the original
castle now exists.
The tower was built between 1245 &
1272 and has been the scene of many historical events. It is reported that the
rebel leader Robert Aske was allegedly hung from the walls in chains and starved
to death. The tower also played its part in the Civil War siege of York in
1644. Then between 1825 & 1935 it was used as a prison. But its most
infamous historical reference is the Jewish massacre of March 1190, when an
estimated 150 Jews, the entire Jewish Community of York, Died after
taking refuge in the Royal Castle.
This museum is like no
other museum, the actual building is on the site of an archaeological dig, the
journey you take is around the actual remains below street level, exactly where
the old city of York was built
The Minster is York's chief
glory, appropriate to the dignity of an Archbishopric, built between 1220 and
1470, it contains England's greatest concentration of medieval stained glass,
principally from the 13th and 14th Centuries. The two most famous windows
being the five sisters and the magnificent 15th Century east window, the largest
in the world. The Ministers length is 518ft and is 241ft wide at the
transept. The central tower rises 198ft and is the largest lantern tower
in Britain. The 14th Century Chapter House with seven lovely window walls
has no central support for its conical roof, just the great buttresses on the
eight sides. The Choir was completed by 1400 and its great climax the east
window with 2,000 sq ft of ancient glass by John Thornton of Coventry was
finished in 1408, the massive towers came last.
This quiet town
built largely of mellowed local stone has a long and historic background.
times it was the selected capital of the
area and one of the original five
of the Danelaw.
town charter was granted by
in 1254 but received quite allot of damage during the
of the Roses
in the 15th
does have the finest collection of
of any small town in
and really does try to keep them all open;
together with excellent examples of
Churches of Stamford
Stamford is blessed with no less than 5 Medieval Churches still open, (there
were 17 originally). The largest concentration of Medieval Churches in the UK.