Christ Church Winnetka, Illinois
and an important market town.
its centre is the market place where the
built in 1671 dominates.
church built in 1402.
are in Priestgate
on the corner of which is the three storied
was built in the 1930s in a mock
Peterborough:first mentioned in a document of 750 as
settlement probably meaning homestead by the
years later the settlement was destroyed by the
but was rebuilt in the 10th
book the place was simply known as
a document of the 12th
defines the name as Medeshamstede
(taking the meaning to be
which is now only called
1333 the city became known as “Petreburgh”
as a Monastery
by the Danes
in 870 and refounded by
over 100 years later.
attacked and plundered it about 1070 and approx
40 years later it was completely destroyed by fire.
present church was begun in 1118. The church was dedicated in 1238.
building is of
481 feet long by 206 feet wide and approx
81 feet high.
the tower reaching 143 feet into the heavens.
The nave is
a superb example of
architecture dating from the second half of the 12th
painted wooden ceiling is unique in all
and dates back to 1220.
the retrochoir the ceiling has magnificent fan vaulting and the “hedda stone” an
important piece of
sculpture dating from about 800.
front of the
are two burial places
Madingley American War Cemetery
Commemorating the brave
American servicemen who gave their lives during the Second World War to help
keep this island and the rest of the world free. 8,312 are buried here
together with a memorial to the 5,126 missing in action. Never let us
forget their help and ultimate sacrifice in helping to keep our island home free
from those across the water who wish to subjugate us into their world which we
are not part. Their sacrifice must be a lesson to us all to never drop our
guard, no matter how sweet the music sounds.
Cambridge is one of the
most important and beautiful towns not only in East Anglia, but also in Britain
and even Europe. The quality of its buildings in particular those
belonging to the University and the particular atmosphere caused by the
felicitous combination of river and gardens have given the city a place in the
itinerary of every visitor to this country. The history of Cambridge began
many hundreds of years before the first college was founded, a Celtic settlement
had arise on Castle Hill 100 years prior to the Roman conquest. At the
foot of the hill was a ford across the River Cam. It is thought the Romans
built a bridge here. The site of Cambridge became of great strategic and
commercial importance. With the departure of the Romans the town continued
to spread to its present position on the East Anglian side of the river.
The coming of the Normans only increased expansion they even rebuilt the Castle.
Then in the 13th Century saw the founding of the first Cambridge College,
Peterhouse College, established in 1281 by the Bishop of Ely and moving to its
own hostels in 1284. So was established the first College and the
consequent increase in the importance of the city as a seat of learning and a
centre of communal life.
Kings College, Cambridge
One of the most
outstanding buildings in Britain and the finest Gothic building in Europe.
It was begun in 1446. its unusual dimensions, 300ft long, 80ft high and 40ft
wide, prepare the visitor for its extraordinary system of spatial relationships.
The effect of the interior is breathtaking. the shafts on either side of the
chapel lead the eye up into the roof where the profusion of delicate fan
vaulting appears to be made of lace rather than stone. The organ case
(1606), screen and choir stalls (1536) stained glass windows (1515 incidentally
the year the chapel was completed) act as a perfect foil to the magnificent
roof. Does this give meaning to look upwards to heaven for the splendours
that are above.
The Town stands above
the River Ouse on a bluff which was formerly an island, accessible only by boat
or causeway until the fens were drained in the 17th and 18th Century. It
was the scene of Hereward`s resistance to William the Conqueror. A quiet
oasis away from the hustle and bustle of modern city life around the precints of
the cathedral are the houses of the Kings School founded by Henry VIII.
Nearby is the Bishops Palace and St Mary`s church, in the vicarage of which
lived Oliver Cromwell and his family from 1636-1647.
The Cathedral was
founded by St Etheldreda in 673 but work on the present building did not
commence until the appointment of Abbot Simeon in 1081. It is only on
entering the Cathedral that the length of the nave becomes apparent (537ft in
length) with a wonderful painted wooden ceiling 72ft high, conceived by Alan
Walsingham over 600 years ago. The effect of its design with its beautiful
fan vaulting and delicate tracery makes it one of the highlights of English
architecture. The chapels which surround the extension contain some of the
most elaborate and extraordinary carvings to be seen in England.
Sandringham House is
the family residence of the Royal Family. The estate was purchased by the
then Prince of Wales in 1862. The 18th Century house was
elaborately refurbished by the Prince who later became Edward VII. It now
retains an appropiate Edwardian atmosphere. The estates are extensive and
include several villages, farms and woodlands which are managed on behalf of the
family. By tradition it is to this very quiet place that the family comes
each Christmas. King George V died here in 1936 and King George VI (Queen
Elizabeth's father) died here in 1952. It is also recorded that King George
VI was born and baptised here.
The most ancient part of
this historic city occupies a rugged hill top rising over 200 feet above the
river Witham. Evidence has been found of occupation by Celtic people who
called the settlement Lindon. On the arrival of the Roman IXth legion in
A.D.47 the name was Latinised to Lindum Colonia. Geographical position,
elevation and the river all helped to make Lincoln an important centre even from
those pre Roman days. Roman Lincoln had fine colannaded streets and
elaborate public baths, also drinking water supplied in earthenware pipes under
pressure from over one and a half miles away. When the Romans departed
they left behind a road and canal system, sewers, working farms and a wealth of
tiles and stone. During the Anglo-Saxon times, Lincoln was a part of the
kingdom of Mercia. With the arrival of the Danes Lincoln became a part of
the Danelaw where streets like Saltergate, Danesgate & Hungate bear witness
(similar to York) The Normans made Lincoln one of the most important
cities in the kingdom. The castle was built in 1068 just 2 years after the
Battle of Hastings. The city is full of wonderful buildings, cobb hall
14th Century, a fine Norman house at 15 The Stait. The castle square some
lovely 16th Century buildings, Greyfriars a 13th Century building originally
designed as a Church (now the museum) the list is endless. The city is now
a busy place providing employment to many thousands in the engineering industry.
The third largest in
England occupying approx 57,000 sq ft. the original building was started in 1072
and fully built by 1092 but after a great fire and of all things an earthquake a
new Cathedral was started in 1192 built in the English style and today we see it
as the triple towered cathedral church of St Mary. An important feature of
the Cathedral is the arcade designed by Sir Christopher Wren in 1674 which was
the year he started the rebuilding of St Pauls.
by William the Conqueror in 1068, built to be a invulnerable stronghold.
The battlemented castle is most impressive. The enclosed area encompasses
approx 6 acres with lawns and trees. The walls are 8 to 10ft thick and double
that amount in height. Two great detached mounds on the South side are the
observatory tower, with great views of Lincoln and the uprights of the Norman
keep. Cobb Hall was added in the 14th Century to be used as a
place of punishment. One can still see the iron rings to which prisoners
where fastened to. The roof of the tower was a place of public execution
till 1868. One of the original copies of Magna Carta is still kept here.
One other interesting feature to look out for within the passage of the castle
gateway is all that is left of the Eleanor Cross. This was positioned
close the priory where the body of Eleanor of Castile, the wife of Edward the
1st was embalmed before starting on its famous journey South to Westminster
Abbey. This, the first of the crosses erected at each resting place of her body
on its funeral procession from Nottinghamshire to the Capital. The last
one at Charing Cross in London where the body lay on the final night before
burial at the Abbey.
The largest & grandest
house of the first Elizabethan age. built between 1565 & 1587 by William Cecil.
The house is still a family home yet full of superb paintings and antiques, a
treasure to feast upon. The art collection is one of the most impressive
17th Century Italian painting collections in the world, with over 300 great
works on display in the state rooms, which also includes work by Gainsborough,
Kneller and Lawrence. The tour will allow access to over 18 state rooms
filled with superb porcelain from all over Europe and a collection of early
Japanese ceramics, together with furniture of the highest quality including a
bed once used by Queen Victoria. Try and find time to wander in the
grounds, acres of park land, originally landscaped by Capability Brown.
Mature trees and plenty of space for the youngsters to let off some steam.
townscape of this walled city illustrates much of its nearly 2,000 years
history. York possesses in its Minster the largest medieval church in
Northern Europe, the general scale of its building is small and human.
Even today York seems more medieval than almost any other English town.
The compact core is a treasure house for anyone interested in history,
architecture or ancient crafts, and is best seen on foot. The Romans
called the place Eboracum, and built a fort in AD.71. Under the Angles,
York was capital of their Kingdom of Deira. King Edwin was baptised here
by Paulinus, who became the first Archbishop of York in 634. The Danes
captured and burnt York in 867 and it was their capital in England for nearly
100 years, they called it Jorvik and it is from this that the present name
derives. There is nothing left to see of Anglo Saxon and Danish York, but
the use of the word gate for street is a reminder that the Danes did settle
here. The Norman's found a thriving little trading centre and burnt it in
1069 during their frightful ravaging of the North, and then rebuilt the walls,
expanding them to take the present 263 acres. Medieval York is everywhere,
not least in the web of narrow streets. The Shambles and Stonegate are two
of the best preserved examples. Too the East of the Minster is the half
timbered St William's College. Three of the nine Guildhalls still survive.
All the city walls are medieval rebuilt on the Roman and Norman foundations in
the 13th Century. A 2.5 mile footpath on the walls gives a circular tour
of the city. In the middle ages, York was England's second city a great
religious and commercial centre. A lovely city with much to see and enjoy.
York Castle (Cliffords tower) In 1068 William
the Conquer built 2 Motte & Bailey castles in York. Both where later destroyed
by a Danish fleet helped by the people of York. Eventually William rebuilt the
two castles and the mound on which now stands Cliffords Tower became a part of
the main fortress. However except for the tower very little of the original
castle now exists.
The tower was built between 1245 &
1272 and has been the scene of many historical events. It is reported that the
rebel leader Robert Aske was allegedly hung from the walls in chains and starved
to death. The tower also played its part in the Civil War siege of York in
1644. Then between 1825 & 1935 it was used as a prison. But its most
infamous historical reference is the Jewish massacre of March 1190, when an
estimated 150 Jews, the entire Jewish Community of York, Died after
taking refuge in the Royal Castle.
This museum is like no
other museum, the actual building is on the site of an archaeological dig, the
journey you take is around the actual remains below street level, exactly where
the old city of York was built
The Minster is York's chief
glory, appropriate to the dignity of an Archbishopric, built between 1220 and
1470, it contains England's greatest concentration of medieval stained glass,
principally from the 13th and 14th Centuries. The two most famous windows
being the five sisters and the magnificent 15th Century east window, the largest
in the world. The Ministers length is 518ft and is 241ft wide at the
transept. The central tower rises 198ft and is the largest lantern tower
in Britain. The 14th Century Chapter House with seven lovely window walls
has no central support for its conical roof, just the great buttresses on the
eight sides. The Choir was completed by 1400 and its great climax the east
window with 2,000 sq ft of ancient glass by John Thornton of Coventry was
finished in 1408, the massive towers came last.