Trinity Church, Boston, MA
Capital City of England & the United Kingdom
Within a few years of invading Britain in 43AD the Romans had built forts and
towns across the land. They linked these outposts with a number of well
constructed roads, some of which had to cross a wide tidal river (Thames).
The Roman engineers eventually picked a crossing point from generally marshy
ground on the South bank (with islands of firm ground) to an area on the North
Bank situated on two low hills, these hills formed the highest and driest site
on the tidal river. At this point the Romans built their bridge and before
long a settlement grew up on the hills and then a City took shape, the Romans
called it Londinium. The landscape that greeted the Romans now lies deep
beneath the modern city, upto 8 metres deep, the reason, every new building over
the past 2,000 years was built on top of the rubble of the old.
One of the longest
rivers in England at 215 miles in length, it flows from its source near
Cheltenham to the sea through some of the most beautiful countryside before
becoming the main artery that the wealth of Britain has been bourn. No
river can have influenced a nations destiny more, from Roman times to the
Opened in January 2000 as a part of the Millennium celebrations it is 135mtrs
high and is the worlds highest observation wheel. The fourth tallest
structure in London. It is 35mtrs taller than Big Ben, 30 mtrs taller than St
Pauls, three times as high as Tower Bridge and a third taller than the Statue of
Liberty. The 360` rotation will take approx 30/35 minutes. The wheel
has 32 fully enclosed capsules holding up to 25 people each. From its highest
point passengers can see 25 miles in each direction on a clear day.
Legend has it that the
first Church built on Thorney Island in the Thames was built by King Segbert in
the 7th Century, there is also mention of a Charter from King Offa of
Mercia to the people of Westminster granting land. We also have a Charter from
King Edgar in the 10th Century for the restoring of the Benedictine
Abbey. It is also written that a substantial foundation existed in Westminster
when King Edward the Confessor became King in 1042. We do know that Edward
started to build a Church here close to the previous building and it was
consecrated on 28th December 1065. Eight days later Edward died and
he was buried in front of the high altar.
Houses of Parliament
The present building
occupies the site of the old Royal Palace. The oldest surviving part of
this palace is Westminster Hall (some of the walls dating back to 1097/99).
In 1840 Sir Charles Barry with the help of his eccentric assistant, Pugin began
building the neo Gothic new house which still graces Parliament Square.
Although it was badly bombed in 1941 the Commons Chamber was completely
destroyed, the new one was opened in 1950. As you look at the palace from
the square the commons are on the left and the lords on the right.
Standing a little to the left of the building is Westminster Hall. This
ancient hall is 290ft long, 68ft wide and 92ft high, it was built in 1097 by
William II and modernised by Richard II in 1399. It was here that Charles
I was condemned to death in 1649, Edward II abdicated in 1327, Oliver Cromwell
was installed as protector and the Guy Fawkes conspirators sentenced to death.
It was the centre of London life, a very public place in which to have sentence
passed. it remains lofty, beautiful, impressive and empty, the oldest part of
the palace and the most lovely.
This ancient hall is 290ft long, 68ft long and 92ft high. It was built in
1097 by William II and modernised by Richard II in 1399. It was here that
Charles I was condemned to death in 1649. Edward II abdicated in 1327.
Oliver Cromwell was installed as protector and the Guy Fawkes conspirators
sentenced to death. It was the centre of London life, a very public place
in which to have sentence passed. It remains lofty, beautiful, impressive
and empty, the oldest part of the palace and the most lovely.
Until the 18th Century the
original site was occupied by Buckingham House which was bought by George III in
1762. When George IV acceded the throne in 1820 he commissioned John Nash
to build a palace fit for a King on the same site. Much of the original
structure and decoration survives to this day.
in 1622 and designed by Indigo Jones, it was the first building in London to
embody the classical Palladium style together with the use of Portland stone in
the construction. Built originally as a part of Whitehall Palace it was
the only building to escape the great fire which destroyed the Palace in 1698.
The main hall is 115ft long and 60ft wide but it is the ceiling which catches
the eye. Painted by Rubens for Charles 1st in 1629-34 it
depicts the Apotheoses of the Stuart Dynasty in nine panels, which should be
viewed from the far end of the room. In 1649 Charles 1st
stepped out of one of the windows of the hall on his way to the scaffold erected
outside in the yard, to his execution. Ironically Charles II celebrated
his restoration to the throne here 20 years later. Still used for state
banquets and official functions by the Government and the Queen.
10 Downing Street
Has been the official
residence of the Prime Minister since Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime
Minister lived here in 1732. The street was named after its builder, Sir
George Downing. The iron gates were erected for security reasons in 1989.
Cabinet War Rooms
In 1940 as the bombs rained
down on London, Winston Churchill, his Cabinet, his Chiefs of Staff and
intelligence chiefs were meeting below ground in a fortified basement in
Whitehall, later to be known as the Cabinet War Rooms. They offered
shelter in which to work, sleep and live for as long as necessary. When
the war ended the lights were switched off and the rooms left silent and
untouched for many years. The rooms were in operational use from 27th
August 1939 to the Japanese surrender in 1945 the war cabinet held more than 100
meetings in these somewhat cramped rooms. Without doubt some of the most
important decisions of the Second World War were taken here.
Horse Guards Parade
The former tiltyard or
jousting field of Whitehall Palace, used for the ceremony of Trooping the Colour
each June to celebrate the Queens official birthday. The Horse Guards
building by which one enters the parade ground from the direction of Whitehall
was reconstructed in 1750 prior to which it was the gatehouse of the Palace of
Westminster. The horse mounted guards who stand duty under two archways
either side of the clock tower stand guard for just one hour at a time not all
day. The soldiers belong either to the Life Guards (red tunics & white
plumes) who formed the bodyguard for Charles I or the Royal Horse
Guards (blue with red plumes) who grew out of a regiment formed by Cromwell.
Both regiments now belong to the Household Cavalry which provides the Queens
Bodyguard on all state occasions.
Trafalgar Square Was
formally part of the Great Mews attached to Whitehall Palace and once included
part of what is now known as Charing Cross. In 1812 architect John Nash
developed the area between Charing Cross and Portland Place leaving this elegant
Square, the largest in London. It was not officially known as Trafalgar
Square until 1830, having been named to celebrate the great naval victory over
the French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.
St. Martins in the Field
The present church designed by James Gibbs was completed in 1726. However
St Martin in the Fields has been a place of worship since 1220. The parish
boundary passes through Buckingham Palace. Queen Elizabeth the Queen
Mother was a parishioner and the Prince of Wales although baptised in the palace
his record is kept in the baptism book held in the church. The church is
renown for its choral music the organ being one of the finest in Europe.
The church plays host and is famous for its lunchtime concerts given free on
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday at 1.05pm
The National Gallery Situated on the North side of
Trafalgar Square, it was built between 1832-38 from a design by William Wilkins.
In 1824 Parliament accepted the idea of a national collection of pictures and
voted £60,000 to buy a collection of 38 pictures from John Angerstein. 30
years later the Government decided to make a regular grant to buy more pictures
and since then the gallery has built up arguably an unrivalled collection
covering the period from the 13th Century to the present day. Particularly
strong in Italian, Dutch, Flemish and French art.
Victoria and Albert Museum Founded originally as the
Marlborough House Museum of Ornamental art in 1852 and then moved to South
Kensington in 1857. The present renaissance style building was designed by
Sir Aston Webb and opened in 1909. Today it constitutes the greatest
collection of fine and decorative art in the world. There is also a
collection of John Constable paintings and drawings given by the Constable
family. So many galleries so much to see!
1753, it is the oldest museum in the world. The original collection was
started by the physician Sir Hans Sloane but over the years it as been added to
many times over. The immense hoard of artefacts spans nearly 2 million
years of world history. It is stored in 94 galleries covering over 2 miles
of displays. Some of the treasures include Egyptian mummies, the
Mildenhall Saxon silver tableware found after being ploughed up in a Suffolk
field in 1942, Lindow man preserved in a bog since the first century AD, pottery
from Greece and Rome, Lindisfarne Gospels from the 7th Century, an
original copy of Magna Carta from 1215. Together with specimens from all over
the world which bring the very history of our civilisation alive.
St. Paul's Cathedral, London
The original Cathedral was
built on Ludgate Hill by the Anglo Saxons in 604A.D. built of wood it burnt down
and was rebuilt on a number of occasions. The present Cathedral was
started by Sir Christopher Wren in 1675 and it took 35 years to build. The
Cathedral was damaged during the Second World War with bombs falling through the
roof and destroying the alter and one damaging the North transept. A
famous picture taken at the time shows the cathedral surrounded by fire and
smoke and through the gloom appearing unscathed the dome of St Pauls rising
dominantly and defiantly from the inferno below, a source of inspiration to the
whole country in its hour of need. In the crypt lie buried, Wren, Nelson,
many other famous British people. The peel of 12 bells is outstanding and
the choir of 38 boys and 18 men maintain a very proud tradition.
Tower of London
Built by William the
Conqueror because he did not trust his new people. Over the years it has
been a garrison, armoury, prison, royal mint and royal palace. Among well known
heads that have rolled or languished in the tower were Kings of Scotland, France
and England. Lady Jane Grey, Duke of Monmouth, Queen Elizabeth for six
months, Sir Walter Raleigh and many more. There is even a gate directly
off the river called traitors gate.
Hampton Court Palace
The grandest Tudor
residence in England. Built from 1514 onwards by Cardinal Wolsey as a
country home, he presented it to King Henry VIII in 1525 who continued to build
until 1540. Sir Christopher Wren added extra buildings from 1689 for King
William III and Queen Mary II.
Dominated both in
spirit and in fact, by its magnificent castle, yet the town itself is very
attractive with Georgian and Victorian buildings, Church Street being one of its
prettiest areas. The parish Church of St John stands in the High Street
with railings designed by Grindling Gibbons. Nearby is the Guildhall
designed at the end of the 17th Century by Sir Thomas Fitch and finished by Sir
Christopher Wren. However it is the castle that made the town and still
attracts thousands and thousands of visitors every year.
The castle is the
largest inhabited castle in the world and covers over 13 acres. Its story
starts with William the Conqueror who quickly grasped its strategic position and
the advantage of a forest for hunting close by. Since then practically
every sovereign has had a hand in the building, Henry II put up the first stone
buildings including the round tower, but the defences are still those built by
Henry III. Edward III was born at Windsor and loved it, he enlarged the royal
apartments and founded the order of the Knights of the Garter, making Windsor a
centre for chivalry. The castle is made up of three parts, the lower ward,
which includes St George's chapel, the upper ward in which lie the state
apartments and the middle ward where the enormous round tower gives wonderful
views over 12 counties.
St. George's Chapel, Windsor
A sumptuous and impressive
building which yet gives an effect of light and spaciousness. The
perpendicular chapel was begun by Edward IV in 1475 and completed in the reigns
of Henry VII and VIII. Many sovereigns and famous men and women lie buried
here, including Charles I, Henry VIII, Jane Seymour and the present Queens
Mother and father. Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert were also
buried at Windsor but in the royal mausoleum at Frogmore in Home Park near the
The historic city of
Winchester has been welcoming groups for centuries, ever since the first
pilgrims visited the shrine of St Swithun. Already an important town in
Roman times, it became the capital under the Anglo Saxons, and in Alfreds time
871-901 was a great centre of learning. William the Conqueror kept
Winchester as his capital and as late as the 17th Century Charles II planned a
palace here. The city is rich in important buildings, one such building is
the Great Hall, completed in 1235 it is a magnificent example of 13th Century
domestic architecture. It is now an Assize Court. Sir Walter Raleigh was
condemned to death here in 1603 and on the wall hangs what is called King
Arthur's Round Table, marked out and inscribed for his knights. However one
building stands out above all others, the cathedral.
building was started in 1079 and consecrated in 1093. Work from this
period can still be seen in the crypt, transepts and east part of the cloister.
Between 1189 and 1204 the lady chapel was built and the choir extended. It
is the longest Medieval Cathedral in Europe (556ft) in 1110 the central tower
collapsed and was rebuilt with the supporting piers greatly strengthened (they
are now 20ft in width). Among its treasures is the Great Winchester Bible dating
back to the 12th Century, this illuminated copy was written in the scriptorium
at Winchester and is now preserved in the Cathedral library.
Isle of Wight
9,000 years ago this area was still a part of the British mainland, however the
rise in sea levels at the end of the last great ice age opened up a waterway,
turning the land into a small island accessible via a short sea crossing.
The island is situated off the South coast of England and measures just 23 miles
by 13 miles. It is however rich in history that can be traced back to the
Built by Queen Victoria’s husband Albert between 1845-1851 as a family retreat
where the family could stay free from the state ceremonial. Much loved by
the Queen who right up till the late 1890s would spend at least 100 days a year
living in the house. In 1901 she returned to Osborne for the last time
dying here in her 83rd year. The rooms are still laid out in
the way she left them with treasured possessions such as paintings, furniture,
ornaments and personal bric a brac on show.
The town stands on steep foothills and the area is well wooded. The parish
church of All Saints has the tallest spire around and is visible for miles.
A popular holiday resort with a population of approx 25,000. The famous pier is
half a mile long and the sandy beach stretches over 7 miles. A very nice
place to wander and have a bite to eat. Mermaid Street is well known
for its steep cobbled road lined with 15th and 17th Century houses. With the
Mermaid Inn a notorious haunt of smugglers in the 18th century.
Dating back nearly a thousand years to the time of William the Conquer.
The Norman Keep is built on an artificial mound which is the oldest part of the
fortifications. The well house also contains the famous remains of the
donkey wheel that was used to raise water from the well.
Goodwood House One of the finest
Stately Homes in the country, home to the Dukes of Richmond & Lennox for over
300 years. The 1st Duke of Richmond was the natural son of King Charles II
and his French Mistress, Louise de Keroulle. Goodwood was originally
bought as a hunting lodge and subsequent Dukes have enlarged the existing
Jacobean House to create the magnificent house we see today.
city dating back to 43AD when the Romans landed nearby and established a base
here. Evidence of their occupation can be seen in the remains of the defensive walls,
They also built a Palace at nearby Fishbourne, one of the largest Roman
buildings uncovered in Britain. When the Romans left, the Saxons
established a settlement here and the area continued to be quite peaceful and
prosperous. The present City lay out follows the original Roman plan of
walls and roads. North, South, East & West Streets crossing at the 16th
Century Butter Cross. Many fine Georgian houses exist especially in a
delightful street called Little London and the flat landscape makes it a fine
and very easy place to explore divided up as it is into four quadrants separated
by the main thoroughfares.
building began in about 1076 under the leadership of Bishop Stigand and
continued under Bishop Ralph De Luffa. A fire in 1114 hindered progress
but most of what we see today existed by 1123. The Cloisters were built in
approx. 1400, followed by the seven light window in the North Transept.
The Chapter House was also completed at about this time. The detached bell
tower was built during the early part of the 15th Century and while
many Cathedrals once had such a building, only the one at Chichester remains today.
It was built to take the weight of the eight massive bells from the Central
Tower. The spire and The Arundel Screen are also 15th Century.
The original Arundel Screen was removed in 1859 and this possibly precipitated
the collapse of the tower in 1861. In 1961 it was restored to its original
position as we see it today. The Prebendal School where the Choristers are
educated stands alongside the Cathedral and is the oldest school in Sussex and
was originally endowed by Edward Storey, Bishop in 1478. The vicars hall
bordering South Street is Circa 15th Century. The 12th
Century Undercroft is now the restaurant. The Vicars' Close also early 15th
Century. The Deanery was built in 1725 and the gateway at the end of Canon
Lane leading to the Bishops Palace is Circa 1327. The Palace just South of
the Cathedral contains a lovely 12th Century Chapel. The
gardens and serenity of this Cathedral is a joy to behold.